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Temperate penguins (genus
), such as the Humboldt and Magellanic, have unfeathered fleshy areas on the face and one or two distinct black stripes across the chest.
61–71 cm (24–28 in.)
5 kg (11 lb.)
Small fishes (e.g. anchovies, etc.), crustaceans, and squid
Approximately 4 years old
Temperate regions of southern South America
Nests on cliff faces, grassy shoreline areas, or in burrows
The discovery of South America's Magellanic penguin was chronicled during the journey of Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1520.
Predators include Southern sea lions, leopard seals, Patagonian foxes and killer whales. Eggs and chicks face predators such as kelp gulls and lesser grisons.
An unpaired, adult Magellanic penguin makes a braying sound, like a donkey, when looking for a mate.
The origin of the word "penguin" has been a subject of debate. Researchers' and historians' theories range from references to the amount of fat (
in Spanish and
in Latin) penguins possess to the claim that the word was derived from two Welsh words meaning "white head." The most agreed-upon explanation is that "penguin" was used as a name for the now-extinct great auk, which the modern-day penguin resembles and for which it was mistaken.
The closet living relatives to penguins are in the order Procellariiformes (the albatrosses, shearwaters and petrels) and the order Gaviiformes. DNA studies also suggest a relationship with the frigatebirds (order Pelecaniformes).
For more information about penguins, explore the
ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
All 18 species of penguin are legally protected from hunting and egg collecting. The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 makes it illegal to harm, or in any way interfere with, a penguin or its eggs. Every penguin specimen collected with a permit must be approved by and reported to the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR). Penguins are vulnerable to habitat destruction, overfishing of primary food sources, ecological disasters such as oil spills, pollution such as trash in the ocean, and human encroachment into nesting areas.
Current threats to Magellanic penguins include overfishing of anchovies (a primary food source), habitat destruction and pollution. Due to their long migrations to reach their breeding grounds, Magellanic penguins are known to be soaked by oil as they swim through heavily travelled ocean shipping lanes.
2011. "Spheniscus magellanicus" (On-line). IUCN Red List. Accessed November 2, 2011 at iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144812/0.
LaMarre, V. 2011. "Spheniscus magellanicus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 02, 2011 at animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/