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African hedgehog, four-toed hedgehog
A small mammal with white hair on its stomach and hair modified into spines on its back
Adult size is 17-23 cm (6-9 in.) long
Newborns weigh about 10 g (0.3 oz.) and adults weigh 270-700 g (10-25 oz.)
Insects, crustaceans, small vertebrates, eggs, carrion, and occasional plant matter
Approximately 10 years
Throughout Central Africa
Open country with low growing vegetation
There are 11 species of hedgehog native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, and they have been introduced to New Zealand.
Hedgehog quills are not barbed or poisonous. However, hedgehogs will apply a foamy saliva to their quills. This may serve many purposes: an irritant to predators, a natural insect repellent since they are unable to clean their skin well, or an attractant to potential mates.
A hedgehog has a large muscle running along its stomach which pulls its body into a tight, spiky little ball for defense.
Large owls and raptors with well-protected feet and sharp claws are some of the only natural enemies of hedgehogs.
Hedgehogs give birth to one to seven babies which are born with the spines just below the skin. Spines start to appear within 24 hours.
ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
Hedgehogs help to control insect and vermin populations. They show a high tolerance to toxins, both natural and human-made. They have been known to consume many animals whose toxins could be fatal to humans including certain beetles, wasps, bees, and venomous snakes. Hedgehogs are also a food source for some larger animals.
Macdonald, D., ed.
Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 2.
London: George Allen and Unwin, 1985.
Parker, S., ed.
Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 1.
London: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1990.
Smith, A. "Husbandry and Medicine of African Hedgehogs". Journal of Small Exotic Animal Medicine, 2(1). Gray Pub, pp. 21-28, 1992.
The Complete Hedgehog.
London: Chatto and Windeos, 1987.