Appendix

Penguin

Appendix

Emperor Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Aptenodytes forsteri
SIZE 112 cm (44 in.), 27-41 kg (60-90 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice
PREY fishes, squids
PREDATORS leopard seals, killer whales, skuas
POPULATION estimated at about 238,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; populations, especially in the northern part of the emperor penguin's range, are expected to decline within the next few generations as a result of projected climate change.

The distribution of emperor penguins is circumpolar on the Antarctic
continent within limits of the pack ice.

King Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Aptenodytes patagonicus
SIZE 94 cm (37 in.), 13.5-16 kg (30-35 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION subantarctic islands and peninsulas, usually forage in ice-free waters
PREY squids, fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, giant petrels, gulls, sheathbills
POPULATION about 2,000,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"; population stable or increasing

King penguins are found on subantarctic islands and peninsulas.
They usually forage for food in ice-free waters.

Adélie Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Pygoscelis adeliae
SIZE 46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 3.5-4.5 kg (8-10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice
PREY primarily krill, also squids and fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION estimated at about 2,370,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; Adélie penguin populations are expected to decline, particularly in the northern part of their range, within the next few generations as a result of sea ice loss from climate change.

Adélie penguin distribution is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent
within the limits of the pack ice.

Gentoo Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Pygoscelis papua
SIZE 61-76 cm (24-30 in.), 5.5-6.5 kg (12-14 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION circumpolar in subantarctic and antarctic waters; avoids pack ice and continental coasts (except near the Antarctic Peninsula)
PREY krill, squid
PREDATORS skuas, leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions
POPULATION estimated 387,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; some populations have experienced declines, overall population may be increasing.

Gentoo penguin distribution is circumpolar in subantarctic and
Antarctic waters. They avoid pack ice and most continental
coasts with the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Chinstrap Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Pygoscelis antarcticus
SIZE 46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION antarctic and South American islands
PREY krill, small fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION about 8,000,000 individuals
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"

Chinstrap penguins are found on Antarctic
and South American islands.

Rockhopper Penguin



GENUS SPECIES southern rockhopper, Eudyptes chrysocome
northern rockhopper, Eudyptes moseleyi
SIZE 41-46 cm (16-18 in.), 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION subantarctic islands (southern rockhopper on the Falkland Islands and islands offshore of Chile and Argentina; northern rockhopper in the South Atlantic Ocean on Gough Island and islands in Tristan da Cunha and also in the southern Indian Ocean on Amsterdam and St. Paul Islands.
PREY fishes, squids, krill
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions, skuas, gulls
POPULATION about 1,230,000 southern rockhopper pairs and about 265,000 northern rockhopper pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies the northern rockhopper as "endangered" and the southern rockhopper as "vulnerable"; populations of both species are declining.

Rockhopper penguins are found on subantarctic islands.

Royal Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptes schlegeli
SIZE 66-76 cm (26-30 in.), 5.5 kg (12 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION Macquarie, Bishop, and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean
PREY krill, squids
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, skuas, giant petrels
POPULATION about 850,000 breeding pairs; most of population on Macquarie Island
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; populations recovering from earlier exploitation

Royal penguins are found on the Macquarie, Bishop and Clerk Islands
in the Southern Ocean as well as around the New Zealand coast.

Erect-Crested Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptes sclateri
SIZE 64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3.5 kg (6-8 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION breed only on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands of New Zealand
PREY probably squids, fishes
PREDATORS possibly New Zealand sea lions, New Zealand fur seals, Australian sea lions
POPULATION estimated 130,000 to 140,000 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; populations are declining

Erect-crested penguins are found along the coasts of Australia, New Zealand
and on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.

Macaroni Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptes chrysolophus
SIZE 51-61 cm (20-24 in.), 4.5 kg (10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans
IDENTIFICATION A crest of orange plumes extends backwards
PREY squids and krill
PREDATORS leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION about 9 million breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; declining; nesting sites small, widespread and vulnerable to predation and human interference.

Macaroni penguins are found on subantarctic islands in the
Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Fiordland Crested Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
SIZE 61 cm (24 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION subantarctic islands and New Zealand
PREY small fishes, crustaceans, cuttlefish
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, stoats (weasel relatives), weka (rail bird)
POPULATION estimated 5,000 to 6,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; declining; nesting sites small, widespread and vulnerable to predation and human interference.

Fiordland crested penguins are found on
subantarctic islands and New Zealand.

Snares Island Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptes robustus
SIZE 64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands (all within 3 sq. km)
PREY krill, squids, fishes
PREDATORS New Zealand sea lions
POPULATION about 62,000 mature penguins
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; all individuals are in less than five locations.

Snares Island penguins are found south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands
which encompasses just 3 square kilometers.

Yellow-Eyed Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Megadyptes antipodes
SIZE 76 cm (30 in.), 6 kg (3 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION southeast New Zealand
PREY fishes and squids
PREDATORS New Zealand sea lions, domestic predators (prey on chicks)
POPULATION estimated 5,930 to 6,970 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; listed a "threatened" on the ESA; small breeding range and population numbers fluctuating and declining

Yellow-eyed penguins are found in southeast New Zealand.

Magellanic Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Spheniscus magellanicus
SIZE 61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 5 kg (11 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina
PREY small fishes, cuttlefish
PREDATORS Southern sea lions, leopard seals, Patagonian foxes
POPULATION about 1,300,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; population has declined at Punta Tombo and in the Falkland Islands. Threats include overfishing by commercial fisheries and oil.

Magellanic penguins are found on the Falkland Islands and along
the coasts of Chile and Argentina.

African Penguin (formerly Black-Footed Penguin)



GENUS SPECIES Spheniscus demersus
SIZE 61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 3 kg (7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION South African waters
PREY mostly anchovies, sardines but also other fishes, squids, and crustaceans
PREDATORS South African fur seals, Southern sea lions, octopus, sharks, sacred ibis, gulls
POPULATION about 52,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS IUCN and the ESA classify this species as "endangered"; CITES lists in Appendix II (threatened); population decreasing; mainly threatened by overfishing by commercial fisheries and shifts in prey populations.

African penguins are found in South African waters.

Little Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Eudyptula minor
SIZE 41–45 cm (16–19 in.), about 1 kg (2 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION southern Australia and New Zealand
PREY small fishes
PREDATORS Australian sea lions, fur seals, dogs, cats, stoats, ferrets
POPULATION less than 1 million individuals in Australia
CURRENT STATUS ESA lists the white-flippered species/subspecies
as "threatened"; listed as "least concerned" by the IUCN

Fairy penguins are found along the coasts of
southern Australia and New Zealand.

Humboldt Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Spheniscus humboldti
SIZE 56-66 cm (22-26 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION islands off western South America, and along the coasts of Peru and Chile
PREY anchovetta (small fish)
PREDATORS possibly sharks and Southern sea lions
POPULATION approximately 2,500 to 9,999 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; CITES lists in Appendix I (endangered); significant threats include overfishing of prey species, drowning in gill nets, illegal capture for consumption, use as bait, illegal capture for the pet trade, and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.

Humboldt penguins are found on islands off of western South America
and along the coasts of Peru and Chile.

Galápagos Penguin



GENUS SPECIES Spheniscus mendiculus
SIZE 53 cm (21 in.), about 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION Galápagos Islands
PREY small fishes
PREDATORS sharks, eared barn owls, Galápagos hawk, feral cats, dogs
POPULATION about 1,200 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS IUCN classifies this species as "endangered "; listed as endangered on the US Endangered Species List; increased human exploitation of the island contributes to habitat degradation and disturbances. This species has also suffered population declines as a result of ENSO events.

Galápagos penguins are found on the Galápagos Islands
and off the coast of Ecuador on the equator.