Appendix

Emperor Penguin
Emperor Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Aptenodytes forsteri
SIZE
112 cm (44 in.), 27-41 kg (60-90 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice
PREY
fishes, squids
PREDATORS
leopard seals, killer whales, skuas
POPULATION
estimated at about 238,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; populations, especially in the northern part of the emperor penguin's range, are expected to decline within the next few generations as a result of projected climate change.

The distribution of emperor penguins is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within limits of the pack ice.

King Penguin
King Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Aptenodytes patagonicus
SIZE
94 cm (37 in.), 13.5-16 kg (30-35 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
subantarctic islands and peninsulas, usually forage in ice-free waters
PREY
squids, fishes
PREDATORS
leopard seals, skuas, giant petrels, gulls, sheathbills
POPULATION
about 2,000,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"; population stable or increasing

King penguins are found on subantarctic islands and peninsulas. They usually forage for food in ice-free waters.

King Penguin Distribution
Adélie Penguin
Adélie Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Pygoscelis adeliae
SIZE
46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 3.5-4.5 kg (8-10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice
PREY
primarily krill, also squids and fishes
PREDATORS
leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION
estimated at about 2,370,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; Adélie penguin populations are expected to decline, particularly in the northern part of their range, within the next few generations as a result of sea ice loss from climate change.

Adélie penguin distribution is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within the limits of the pack ice.

Adélie Penguin Distribution
Gentoo Penguin
Gentoo Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Pygoscelis papua
SIZE
61-76 cm (24-30 in.), 5.5-6.5 kg (12-14 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
circumpolar in subantarctic and antarctic waters; avoids pack ice and continental coasts (except near the Antarctic Peninsula)
PREY
krill, squid
PREDATORS
skuas, leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions
POPULATION
estimated 387,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; some populations have experienced declines, overall population may be increasing.

Gentoo penguin distribution is circumpolar in subantarctic and Antarctic waters. They avoid pack ice and most continental coasts with the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Gentoo Penguin Distribution
Chinstrap Penguin
Chinstrap Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Pygoscelis antarcticus
SIZE
46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
antarctic and South American islands
PREY
krill, small fishes
PREDATORS
leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION
about 8,000,000 individuals
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"

Chinstrap penguins are found on Antarctic and South American islands

Chinstrap Penguin Distribution
Rockhopper Penguin
Rockhopper Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
southern rockhopper, Eudyptes chrysocome northern rockhopper, Eudyptes moseleyi
SIZE
41-46 cm (16-18 in.), 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
subantarctic islands (southern rockhopper on the Falkland Islands and islands offshore of Chile and Argentina; northern rockhopper in the South Atlantic Ocean on Gough Island and islands in Tristan da Cunha and also in the southern Indian Ocean on Amsterdam and St. Paul Islands.
PREY
fishes, squids, krill
PREDATORS
New Zealand fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions, skuas, gulls
POPULATION
about 1,230,000 southern rockhopper pairs and about 265,000 northern rockhopper pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies the northern rockhopper as "endangered" and the southern rockhopper as "vulnerable"; populations of both species are declining.

Rockhopper penguins are found on subantarctic islands.

Rockhopper Penguin Distribution
Royal Penguin
Royal Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptes schlegeli
SIZE
66-76 cm (26-30 in.), 5.5 kg (12 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
Macquarie, Bishop, and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean
PREY
squids, krill
PREDATORS
New Zealand fur seals, skuas, giant petrels
POPULATION
about 850,000 breeding pairs; most of population on Macquarie Island
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; populations recovering from earlier exploitation

Royal penguins are found on the Macquarie, Bishop and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean as well as around the New Zealand coast.

Royal Penguin Distribution
Erect-Crested Penguin
Erect-Crested Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptes sclateri
SIZE
64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3.5 kg (6-8 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
breed only on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands of New Zealand
PREY
probably squids, fishes
PREDATORS
possibly New Zealand sea lions, New Zealand fur seals, Australian sea lions
POPULATION
estimated 130,000 to 140,000 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; populations are declining

Erect-crested penguins are found along the coasts of Australia, New Zealand and on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.

Erect-Crested Penguin Distribution
Macaroni Penguin
Macaroni Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptes chrysolophus
SIZE
51-61 cm (20-24 in.), 4.5 kg (10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans
IDENTIFICATION
A crest of orange plumes extends backwards
PREY
squids and krill
PREDATORS
leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION
about 9 million breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; declining; nesting sites small, widespread and vulnerable to predation and human interference.

Macaroni penguins are found on subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Macaroni Penguin Distribution
Fiordland Crested Penguin
Fiordland Crested Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
SIZE
61 cm (24 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
subantarctic islands and New Zealand
PREY
small fishes, crustaceans, cuttlefish
PREDATORS
New Zealand fur seals, stoats (weasel relatives), weka (rail bird)
POPULATION
estimated 5,000 to 6,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; declining; nesting sites small, widespread and vulnerable to predation and human interference.

Fiordland crested penguins are found on subantarctic islands and New Zealand.

Fiordland Crested Penguin distributtion
Snares Island Penguin
Snares Island Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptes robustus
SIZE
64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands (all within 3 sq. km)
PREY
krill, squids, fishes
PREDATORS
New Zealand sea lions
POPULATION
about 62,000 mature penguins
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; all individuals are in less than five locations.

Snares Island penguins are found south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands which encompasses just 3 square kilometers.

Snares Island Penguin
Yellow-Eyed Penguin
Yellow-Eyed Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Megadyptes antipodes
SIZE
76 cm (30 in.), 6 kg (3 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
southeast New Zealand
PREY
fishes and squids
PREDATORS
New Zealand sea lions, domestic predators (prey on chicks)
POPULATION
estimated 5,930 to 6,970 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; listed a "threatened" on the ESA; small breeding range and population numbers fluctuating and declining

Yellow-eyed penguins are found in southeast New Zealand.

Yellow-Eyed Penguin
Magellanic Penguin
Magellanic Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Spheniscus magellanicus
SIZE
61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 5 kg (11 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina
PREY
small fishes, cuttlefish
PREDATORS
Southern sea lions, leopard seals, Patagonian foxes)
POPULATION
about 1,300,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; population has declined at Punta Tombo and in the Falkland Islands. Threats include overfishing by commercial fisheries and oil.

Magellanic penguins are found on the Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina.

Magellanic penguin
African Penguin (formerly Black-Footed Penguin)
African Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Spheniscus demersus
SIZE
61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 3 kg (7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
South African waters
PREY
mostly anchovies, sardines but also other fishes, squids, and crustaceans
PREDATORS
South African fur seals, Southern sea lions, octopus, sharks, sacred ibis, gulls
POPULATION
about 52,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN and the ESA classify this species as "endangered"; CITES lists in Appendix II (threatened); population decreasing; mainly threatened by overfishing by commercial fisheries and shifts in prey populations.

African penguins are found in South African waters.

African Penguin Distribution
Little Penguin (also known as Fairy or Little Blue Penguin)
Little Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Eudyptula minor
SIZE
41–45 cm (16–19 in.), about 1 kg (2 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
southern Australia and New Zealand
PREY
small fishes
PREDATORS
Australian sea lions, fur seals, dogs, cats, stoats, ferrets
POPULATION
less than 1 million individuals in Australia
CURRENT STATUS
ESA lists the white-flippered species/subspecies as "threatened"; listed as "least concerned" by the IUCN

Little penguins are found along the coasts of southern Australia and New Zealand.

Fairy penguin
Humboldt Penguin
Humboldt Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Spheniscus humboldti
SIZE
56-66 cm (22-26 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
islands off western South America, and along the coasts of Peru and Chile
PREY
anchovetta (small fish)
PREDATORS
possibly sharks and Southern sea lions
POPULATION
approximately 2,500 to 9,999 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; listed as "threatened" on the ESA; CITES lists in Appendix I (endangered); significant threats include overfishing of prey species, drowning in gill nets, illegal capture for consumption, use as bait, illegal capture for the pet trade, and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.

Humboldt penguins are found on islands off of western South America and along the coasts of Peru and Chile.

Galápagos Penguin
Galápagos Penguin
GENUS SPECIES
Spheniscus mendiculus
SIZE
53 cm (21 in.), about 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION
Galápagos Islands
PREY
small fishes
PREDATORS
sharks, eared barn owls, Galápagos hawk, feral cats, dogs
POPULATION
about 1,200 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS
IUCN classifies this species as "endangered "; listed as endangered on the US Endangered Species List; increased human exploitation of the island contributes to habitat degradation and disturbances. This species has also suffered population declines as a result of ENSO events.

Galápagos penguins are found on the Galápagos Islands and off the coast of Ecuador on the equator.

Galápagos Penguin
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