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The distribution of emperor penguins is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within limits of the pack ice.
King penguins are found on subantarctic islands and peninsulas. They usually forage for food in ice-free waters.
Adélie penguin distribution is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within the limits of the pack ice.
Gentoo penguin distribution is circumpolar in subantarctic and Antarctic waters. They avoid pack ice and most continental coasts with the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Chinstrap penguins are found on Antarctic
and South American islands
Rockhopper penguins are found on subantarctic islands.
Royal penguins are found on the Macquarie, Bishop and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean as well as around the New Zealand coast.
Erect-crested penguins are found along the coasts of Australia, New Zealand and on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.
Macaroni penguins are found on subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
Fiordland crested penguins are found on
subantarctic islands and New Zealand.
Snares Island penguins are found south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands which encompasses just 3 square kilometers.
Yellow-eyed penguins are found in southeast New Zealand.
Magellanic penguins are found on the Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina.
African penguins are found in South African waters.
Little penguins are found along the coasts of southern Australia and New Zealand.
Humboldt penguins are found on islands off of western South America and along the coasts of Peru and Chile.
Galápagos penguins are found on the Galápagos Islands and off the coast of Ecuador on the equator.