1. As in most birds, penguin hearing is probably good, but not as acute as that of marine mammals. The hearing range for most birds is 0.1-8 kHz. Hearing for penguins has not been well researched, but vocalization has. Vocalizations (calls) are important in communication and mate recognition.


  1. A penguin's eyes are adapted to see clearly both in air and under water. (Howland and Sivak, 1984)
  2. Penguins can see well in the air and under water.

  3. Penguins have color vision and are sensitive to violet, blue, and green wavelengths of light.


  1. The sense of taste in penguins has not been extensively studied. In general, the sense of taste is poorly developed in birds.


  1. A penguin's sense of smell may be more developed than early studies indicated. The olfactory lobe of a penguin's brain is large. Studies on captive Humboldt penguins indicate that this species may have some sense of smell.

Studies conducted with Humboldt penguins indicate
they may have a sense of smell.