- As in most birds, penguin hearing is probably good, but not as acute as that of marine mammals. The hearing range for most birds is 0.1-8 kHz. Hearing for penguins has not been well researched, but vocalization has. Vocalizations (calls) are important in communication and mate recognition.
- A penguin's eyes are adapted to see clearly both in air and under water. (Howland and Sivak, 1984)
Penguins can see well in the air and under water.
- Penguins have color vision and are sensitive to violet, blue, and green wavelengths of light.
- The sense of taste in penguins has not been extensively studied. In general, the sense of taste is poorly developed in birds.
- A penguin's sense of smell may be more developed than early studies indicated. The olfactory lobe of a penguin's brain is large. Studies on captive Humboldt penguins indicate that this species may have some sense of smell.
Studies conducted with Humboldt penguins indicate
they may have a sense of smell.