Primary Publications

Primary Publications

SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Reproductive Research Center

Book Chapters

  • Penfold, L.M. and O'Brien, J.K. (2011). Importation of Non-domestic Ruminant Semen for Management of Zoological Populations using Artificial Insemination. In: Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy Vol 7, Eds. Miller and ME Fowler, Elsevier Inc., pp 604-611.
  • Robeck T.R., O'Brien, J.K., and Odell, D.K. (2008). Captive Breeding. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Ed 2. Perrin, W.F., Wursig, B., Thewissen, J.G.M. Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 178-183.
  • Robeck, T.R., Atkinson, S., Brook, F. (2001). Chap 11: Reproduction. In: CRC Handbook in Marine Mammal Medicine, Second edition. Dierauf, L., Gulland, F. (eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl Pp. 193-236.

SWBGRRC Selected Peer-reviewed Publications (2004-2014)

  • O'Brien. J. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2014). Semen characterization, seasonality of production, and in vitro sperm quality after chilled storage and cryopreservation in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Zoo Biology 33:99-109.
  • Robeck, T. R. and Nollens, H. H. (2013). Hematological and serum biochemical analytes reflect physiological challenges during gestation and lactation in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology 32:497-509.
  • Robeck, T.R., Montano, G.A., Steinman, K.J., Smolensky, P., Sweeney, J., Osborn, S. and O'Brien, J.K. (2013). Development and evaluation of deep intra-uterine artificial insemination using cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Animal Reproduction Science, 139:168-181.
  • O'Brien, J.K., Steinman, K.J., Montano, G.A., Love, C.C., Robeck, T.R. (2013). Sperm DNA fragmentation and morphological degeneration in chilled elephant (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) semen collected by transrectal massage. Andrology, 1:387-400.
  • O'Brien, J.K., Steinman, K.J., Montano, G.A., Love, C.C., Saiers, R.L., Robeck, T.R. (2013). Characteristics of high quality Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) ejaculates and in vitro sperm quality after prolonged chilled storage and directional freezing. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 25:790-797.
  • Osborn, S., Dalton, L., Dold, C., Robeck, T. (2012). Management of twin pregnancy and perinatal concerns in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 43:193-196.
  • Robeck, T. R., Gili, C., Doescher, B. M., Sweeney, J., De Laender, P., Van Elk, C. E. and O'Brien, J. K. (2012). Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 43:296-308.
  • Montano, G. A., Kraemer, D. C., Love, C. C., Robeck, T. R. and O'Brien. J. K. (2012). Evaluation of motility, membrane status and DNA integrity of frozen-thawed bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa after sex-sorting and recryopreservation. Reproduction,143:799-813.
  • O'Brien, J. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2012). The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome after natural breeding and artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Theriogenology, 78:469-482.
  • Steinman, K. J., O'Brien, J. K., Monfort, S. L. and Robeck, T. R. (2012). Characterization of the estrous cycle in female beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) using urinary endocrine monitoring and transabdominal ultrasound: Evidence of facultative induced ovulation.  General and Comparative Endocrinology, 175:389-397.
  • Keeley, T., McGreevy, P.D. and O'Brien, J.K. (2012). Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm collected post-mortem in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Theriogenology, 78:315-325.
  • Keeley, T., McGreevy, P.D., Fanson, B.G., Masters, K. and O'Brien, J.K. (2012). The reproductive cycle of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and factors associated with reproductive success in captivity. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 176:182-191.
  • Keeley, T., Harris, M., McGreevy, P.D., Hudson, D. and O'Brien, J.K. (2012). Development and evaluation of electroejaculation techniques in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 24:1008-1018.
  • Keeley, T., McGreevy, P.D., and O'Brien, J.K. (2012). The effects of season and Devil Facial Tumour Disease on the reproductive physiology of the male Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 24:999-1007.
  • Robeck, T. R., Gearhart, S.A., Steinman, K. J., Katsumata, E., Loureiro J. D. and O'Brien, J. K. (2011). In vitro sperm characterization and the development of a semen cryopreservation method using directional solidification in the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Theriogenology, 76:267-279.
  • Stoops M. A., O'Brien J. K. and Roth, T. L. (2011). Gamete rescue in the African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Theriogenology, 76:1258-1265.
  • Keeley, T., McGreevy, P. D. and O'Brien, J. K. (2011). Characterization and short-term storage of Tasmanian devil sperm collected post-mortem. Theriogenology, 76:705-714.
  • Robeck, T. R., Steinman, K. J., Montano, G. A., Katsumata, E., Osborn, S., Dalton, L., Dunn, J. L., Schmitt, T., Reidarson, T. and O'Brien, J. K. (2010). Deep intra-uterine artificial inseminations using cryopreserved spermatozoa in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Theriogenology, 74:989-1001.
  • Roth T. L., Stoops, M. A., Robeck, T. R., Ball, R. L., Wolfe, B. A., Finnegan, M. V. and O'Brien, J. K. (2010). Alkaline Phosphatase as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros. Theriogenology, 74:1701-1706.
  • O'Brien, J. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2010). The value of ex situ cetacean populations in understanding assisted reproductive technology for ex situ and in situ species management and conservation efforts. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23:227-48.
  • O'Brien J. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2010). Preservation of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) spermatozoa using a trehalose-based cryodiluent and directional freezing technology. Reprodution, Fertility and Development, 22:653-63.
  • Robeck, T. R., Steinman, K. J., Ramirez, K., Greenwell, M., Van Bonn, W., Yoshioka, M., Katsumata, E., Dalton, L., Osborn, S. and O'Brien J. K. (2009). Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Reproduction, 138:391-405.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Steinman, K. J., Robeck, T. R. (2009). Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation. Theriogenology, 71:98-107.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Steinman, K. J., Robeck, T. R. (2009). Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation. Theriogenology 71:98-107.
  • O'Brien, J.K., Steinman, K.J., Schmitt, T., and Robeck, T.R. (2008). Semen collection, characterisation and artificial insemination in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) using liquid-stored spermatozoa. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 20:770-783.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Steinman, K. J., Schmitt, T. and Robeck, T. R. (2008). Semen collection, characterization and artificial insemination in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) using liquid-stored spermatozoa. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 20:770-783.
  • Holt, W. V., O'Brien, J. K., and Abaigar, T. (2007). Applications and interpretation of computer-assisted sperm analyses and sperm sorting methods in assisted breeding and comparative research. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 19:709-718.
  • Robeck T. R. and Monfort, S. L. (2006). Characterization of male killer whale (Orcinus orca) sexual maturation and reproductive seasonality. Theriogenology, 66:242-250.
  • O'Brien, J. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2006). Development of sperm sexing and associated assisted reproductive technology for sex pre-selection of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Reproduction Fertility and Development, 18:319-329.
  • Robeck, T. R., and O'Brien, J. K. (2005). Development and Application of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Cetaceans. World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Marine Conservation Issues. Nr 7. Pg 8-10. Ed P. Dollinger. WAZA Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland.
  • Robeck, T. R., Steinman, K. J., Yoshioka, M., Jensen, E., O'Brien, J. K., Katsumata, E., Gili C., McBain J. F., Sweeney, J. and Monfort, S. L. (2005). Estrous cycle characterization and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Reproduction, 129:659-674.
  • Robeck, T. R., Monfort, S. L., Calle, P. P., Dunn, J. L., Jensen, E., Boehm, J. R., Young, S., Clark, S. T. (2005). Reproduction, growth and development in captive beluga (Delphinapterus leucus). Zoo Biology,24:29-49.
  • Robeck, T. R. and O'Brien, J. K. (2004). Effect of cryopreservation methods and pre-cryopreservation storage on bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction, 70:1340-1348.
  • Robeck, T. R., Steinman, K. J., Gearhart, S., Reidarson, T. R., McBain, J. F., Monfort, S. L. (2004). Reproductive physiology and development of artificial insemination technology in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biology of Reproduction, 71:650-660.
pic-king-penguin-01

Prior Peer-Reviewed Publications by Research Team Members

Dr Todd R. Robeck D.V.M., Ph.D

  • Robeck, T. R. and Dalton, L. M. (2002).  Zygomycotic infections in bottlenose dolphins, (Tursiops truncatus), a killer whale (Orcinus orca), and pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) caused by Saksenaea vasiformis and Apophysomyces elegans. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 33:356-366.
  • Miller, D.L., Styer, E.L., Decker, S. J.  and Robeck T. R. (2002). Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa from three odontocetes, a killer whale (Orcinus orca), a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 31:1-11.
  • Odell, D. K. and Robeck, T. R. (2002). Captive Breeding. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals.  Perrin, W. F., Wursig, B., Thewissen, J. G. M. (eds). Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 188-192.
  • Robeck, T. R., Atkinson, S. and Brook, F. (2001). Chap 11: Reproduction. In: CRC Handbook in Marine Mammal Medicine, Second edition. Dierauf, L., Gulland,F. (eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl Pp. 193-236.
  • Dunn, J. L., Buck, J. D. and Robeck, T. R. (2001). Chap 16: Bacterial Disease of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds. In: CRC Handbook in Marine Mammal Medicine, Second edition. Dierauf, L., Gulland,F. (eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl Pp. 309-335.
  • Duffield, D. and Robeck, T. R. (2000). Report from the Bottlenose dolphin reproduction workshop. San Diego, California. June 3-6, 1999. AZA Marine Mammal Taxon Advisory Group, Silver Springs, MD.
  • Robeck, T. R. (2000). Advances in Bottlenose Dolphin Reproduction 1977-1999. The Bottlenose Dolphin Breeding Workshop, San Diego, California. June 3-6th, 1999 AZA Marine Mammal Taxon Advisory Group, Silver Springs, MD. Pp 109-131.
  • Joseph, B., Duffield, D. and Robeck, T. R. (2000). Summary Data on Reproduction of Bottlenose Dolphins in Oceanaria. AZA Marine Mammal Taxon Advisory Group, Silver Springs, MD. Pp. 43-56.
  • Rostal, D. C., Robeck, T. R., Grumbles, J. S., Burchfield, P. M. and Owens, D.W. (1998). Seasonal reproductive cycle of the Galapagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra) in captivity.Zoo Biology, 17:505-517.
  • Robeck, T. R., McBain, J. F., Mathey, S. and Kraemer, D. C. (1998). Sonographic evaluation of the effects of exogenous gonadotropins on follicular recruitment and ovulation induction in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 29:6-13.
  • Robeck, T. R., Fitzgerald, L. J., Turczynski, C. J. and Kraemer, D. C. (1997). Analysis of urinary progesterone metabolites in the dik-dik antelope (Madoqua quentheri). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 28:434-442.
  • Robeck, T. R., Curry, B. E, McBain, J. F. and Kraemer, D. C. (1994). Reproductive biology of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the potential application of advanced reproductive technologies. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 25:321-336.
  • Robeck, T. R., Schneyer, A. L., McBain, J. F., Dalton, L. M., Walsh, M. T., Czekala, N. M. and Kraemer, D.C. (1993). Analysis of urinary immunoreactive steroid metabolites and gonadotropins for characterization of the estrous cycle, breeding period, and seasonal estrous activity of captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology, 12:173-188.
  • Robeck, T. R., Rostal, D. C., Burchfield, P. M., Owens, D. W. and Kraemer, D. C. (1990). Ultrasound imaging of reproductive organs and eggs in Galapagos tortoise, Geochelone elephantopus. Zoo Biology 9:349-359.
  • Rostal, D. C., Robeck, T. R., Owens, D. W. and Kraemer, D. C. (1990). Ultrasound imaging of ovaries and eggs in Kemp's Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys Kempi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21:27-35.

Dr Justine K. O’Brien B.Sc.Agr., Ph.D.

  • O'Brien, J. K., Heffernan, S., Thomson, P. C. and McGreevy, P. D. (2008). Effect of positive reinforcement training on physiological and behavioural stress responses in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas). Animal Welfare, 17:125-138.
  • Guy, A. J., Schuerch, F. S., Heffernan, S., Thomson, P. C., O'Brien, J. K. and McGreevy, P. D. (2007). The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on behavioural responses of captive female hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). Animal Reproduction Science, 108:412-24
  • Holt, W. V., O'Brien, J. K., and Abaigar, T. (2007). Applications and interpretation of computer-assisted sperm analyses and sperm sorting methods in assisted breeding and comparative research. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 19:709-718.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Evans, G., Gillan, L., Guerra, M. M. P., Maxwell, W. M. C., and O'Brien, J. K. (2007). The influence of antioxidant, cholesterol and seminal plasma on the in vitro quality of sorted and non-sorted ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 67:217-227.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Evans, G., Maxwell, W. M. C., Cran, D. G., and O'Brien, J. K. (2007). Birth of offspring of pre-determined sex after artificial insemination of frozen-thawed, sex-sorted and re-frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 67:391-398.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Peake, K., Maxwell, W. M. C., O'Brien, J. K. and Evans, G. (2007). Influence of supplementing diet with oleic and linoleic acid on the freezing success and sex-sorting parameters of ram semen. Livestock Science, 110:166-173.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Evans, G., Maxwell, W. M. C., Downing, J. A. and, O'Brien, J. K. (2007). Successful low dose insemination of flow cytometrically sorted ram spermatozoa in sheep. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 42:648-653.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Beilby, K. H., O'Brien, J. K., Osborn, D., Downing, J. A., Maxwell, W. M. C., and Evans, G. (2007). Embryo production from superovulated sheep inseminated with sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 67:550-555.
  • de Graaf, S. P., Evans, G., Maxwell, W. M. C., and O'Brien, J. K. (2006). In vitro function of fresh and frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa after sex-sorting and re-freezing. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 18:867-874.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Stojanov, T., Crichton, E. G., Evans, K. M., Leigh, D., Maxwell, W. M. C., Evans, G. and Loskutoff, N. M. (2005). Flow cytometric sorting of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology, 66:297-315.
  • Peel, A. J., Vogelnest, L., Finnigan, M., Grossfeldt, L. & O'Brien, J. K. (2005). Non-Invasive Fecal Hormone Analysis and Behavioral Observations for Monitoring Stress Responses in Captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoo Biology 24:431-445.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Stojanov, T., Heffernan, S., Hollinshead, F. K., Vogelnest, L., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (2005). Flow cytometric sorting of non-human primate sperm nuclei. Theriogenology, 63:246-259.
  • Maxwell, W.M.C., Evans, G., Hollinshead, F.K., Bathgate, R., de Graaf, S.P., Eriksson, B.M., Gillan, L., Morton, K.M. and O'Brien, J.K. (2004). Integration of sperm sexing technology into the ART toolbox. Animal Reproduction Science, 82-83, 79-95.
  • Hollinshead, F. K., Evans, K. M., Evans, G., Maxwell, W. M. C. and O'Brien, J. K. (2004). Birth of lambs of a pre-determined sex after in vitro production of embryos using frozen-thawed sex-sorted and re-frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Reproduction, 127:557-568.
  • Hollinshead, F. K., O'Brien, J. K, Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (2004). Assessment of in vitro sperm characteristics after flow cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 62:958-968.
  • Hollinshead, F. K., O'Brien, J. K., Gillan, L., Meyers, M., Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (2004). Liquid storage of flow cytometrically sorted ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 62:587-605.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Hollinshead, F. K., Evans, K. M., Evans, G., Maxwell, W. M. C. (2003). Flow cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in sheep and non-human primates. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 15:367-375.
  • Hollinshead, F. K., Gillan, L. G., O'Brien, J. K., Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (2003). In vitro and in vivo assessment of functional capacity of flow cytometrically sorted ram spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 15:351-359.
  • O'Brien, J.K., Crichton, E.G., Evans, K.M., Schenk, J.L., Stojanov, T., Evans, G., Maxwell, W.M.C. & Loskutoff, N.M. (2002). Sex ratio modification using sperm sorting and assisted reproductive technology - a population management strategy. 2nd Int. Symp.  Assisted Reprod. Tech. (ART) Conservation Genetic Management Wildlife, Omaha, Nebraska, 28-29 September 2002, pp 224-231.
  • Hollinshead, F. K., O'Brien, J. K., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans G. (2002). Production of lambs of predetermined sex after the insemination of ewes with low numbers of sex-sorted, frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 14:503-508.
  • Roth, T. L., O'Brien, J. K., McRae, M. A., Romo, S. J., Kroll, J. L., Bellem, A. C. and Brown, J. L. (2001). Ultrasound and endocrine evaluation of the ovarian cycle and early pregnancy in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Reproduction, 121:139-149.
  • O'Brien, J. K. and Roth, T. L. (2000). Functional capacity and fertilising longevity of frozen-thawed scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa in a heterologous in vitro fertilisation system. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 12:413-421.
  • O'Brien, J. K. and Roth, T. L. (2000). Post-coital sperm recovery and cryopreservation in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and application to gamete rescue in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 118:263-271.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Dwarte, D., Ryan, J. P., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (2000). Comparison of in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilisation, metabolism and ultrastructure of oocytes from prepubertal and adult pigs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 35:101-107.
  • Obringer, A. R., O'Brien, J. K., Saunders, R. L. and Roth, T. L. (2000). Spermiation in toads after luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone treatment: developing safe, reliable methods for sperm collection in endangered amphibians. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 12:51-58.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Oehler, D. A., Malowski S. P. and Roth, T. L. (1999). Semen collection, characterisation and cryopreservation in a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). Zoo Biology, 18:199-214.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Catt, S. L., Ireland, K.A., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (1997). In vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of oocytes from prepubertal and adult sheep. Theriogenology, 47:1433-1443.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Beck, N. F. G., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (1997). Effect of hormone pre-treatment of prepubertal sheep on the production and developmental capacity of oocytes in vitro and in vivo. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 9:625-631.
  • Catt, S. L., O'Brien, J. K., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (1997). Assessment of ram and boar spermatozoa during cell-sorting by flow cytometry. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 32:251-258.
  • Catt, S. L., O'Brien, J. K., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (1997). Effects of development of in vitro produced (IVP) ovine embryos on sex ratio and in vivo survival after embryo transfer. Theriogenology, 48:1369-1378.
  • O'Brien, J. K., Dwarte, D., Ryan, J. P., Maxwell, W. M. C. and Evans, G. (1996). Developmental capacity, energy metabolism and ultrastructure of oocytes from prepubertal and adult sheep. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 8:1029-1037.

Karen Steinman B.S.

  • MacDonald, E. A., Linklater, W. L. Steinman, K. J. and Czekala, N. M. (2007). Rapid colour-change pregnancy test for rhinoceros using faeces.  Endangered Species Research, 4:277-281.
  • Steinman, K. J.,Monfort, S. L., McGeehan, L., Kersey, D., Wang, P., Gual-Sil, F., Snyder, R. and Czekala, N. M. (2006). Endocrinology of the giant panda and application of hormone technology to species management. In: Giant Pandas in Captivity: Biology and Medicine (ed. Wildt, D.E., Zhang, A., Zhang, H., Janssen, D., Ellis, S). Cambridge University Press Pp 198-230.
  • Owen, M. A., Czekala, N. M., Swaisgood, R. R., Steinman, K. J. and Lindburg, D. G. (2005). Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of glucocortioids and behavior in giant pandas. Ursus, 16:208-221.
  • Owen, M. A., Czekala, N. M., Swaisgood, R. R., Steinman, K. J. and Lindburg, D. L. (2004). Seasonal dynamics of behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in giant pandas. Zoo Biology, 23:147-164.
  • Czekala, N. M., McGeehan, L., Steinman, K. J., Li, X., and Gual-Sil F. (2003). Endocrine monitoring and its application to the management of the giant panda.  Zoo Biology, 22:389-400.
  • Czekala, N. M., MacDonald, E. A., Steinman, K. J., Walker, S. L., Garrigues, N. W., Olson, D. and Brown, J. L.  (2003). Estrogen and LH dynamics during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in the Asian elephant. Zoo Biology, 22:443-454.