As in most birds, penguin hearing is probably good, but not as acute as that of marine mammals. Hearing for penguins has not been well researched. One study on African penguins found a hearing range of 100 to 15,000 Hz with a peak sensitivity between 600 to 4,000 Hz.
A penguin's eyes are adapted to see clearly both in air and under water.
Penguins have binocular vision.
Penguins have color vision and are sensitive to violet, blue, and green wavelengths of light and possibly to ultraviolet light as well.
The sense of taste in penguins has not been extensively studied. In general, the sense of taste is poorly developed in birds.
A penguin's sense of smell may be more developed than early studies indicated. The olfactory lobe of a penguin's brain is large. Studies on Humboldt penguins and African penguins indicate that at least some species can smell prey-related odors, which may help them locate productive foraging areas at sea. Humboldt penguins also use their sense of smell to discriminate related and nonrelated individuals and detect nest mates.