- Common Name
- golden conure, golden parakeet
- Psittacidae (true parrots)
- Genus Species
- Guaruba guarouba
- As its common name implies, in general the adult plumage is a rich yellow color with dark green primaries, secondaries, and outer wings.
- Approximately 34 cm (13.6 in.)
- Approximately 240 g (8.4 oz)
- This species feeds on fruit, berries, seeds, nuts and grain crops like corn.
- Approximately 28 to 30 days
- Clutch Size
- 2 to 6 eggs
- Life Span
- 20 or more years
- This species is endemic to Brazil. The largest known population, with around 500 individuals, occurs along the Tapajós River.
- Golden conures are apparently nomadic in lowland humid forest. In the dry season, they tend to frequent the canopy of non-flooded forest. During the breeding season, these birds appear to inhabit clearings with a few scattered trees. Tree-cavities are used for nesting and roosting.
- The total population is estimated between 10,000-20,000 individuals, including 6,600 to 13,400 mature individuals. The population is decreasing but is not severely fragmented.
- IUCN: Vulnerable
CITES: Appendix I and II; considered vulnerable at the national level in Brazil.
Due to the small quantity of these birds in the wild, little is known about this bird.
Golden conures are not known as a truly social bird but pairs and small groups may be seen feeding in the treetops together.
These birds have a tendency to spend long periods of time in their nest, even when not breeding.
Breeding is apparently communal, with several females contributing two or three eggs to each nest and several adults caring for the young. Up to nine young have been recorded in a nest in the wild, and up to 14 in captivity.
These birds make a high-pitched, vibrant "greh" or "kray" call.
Ecology and Conservation
The Golden Conure was listed as endangered in 1994 but was downlisted to Vulnerable in 2013
Habitat destruction and fragmentation as a result of road construction, subsequent development and settlement, with accompanying illegal logging, are threats in the east of its range. Selective logging of primary hardwoods removes suitable roosting and nesting cavities.
Although these birds have been extensively trapped for trade, this is no longer a major concern as trade is now usually within the substantial captive population, and does not have a significant impact on the wild population.
Long-term captive breeding programs are important to ensure the survival of this species. The AZA recognizes Busch Gardens Tampa Bay as the first to successfully breed this species.
Austin, G. Birds of the World. New York. Golden Press, Inc. 1961.
Forshaw, J.M. Parrots of the World. New Jersey. T.F.H. Publications Inc. 1978.
Gotch, A.F. Birds - Their Latin Names Explained. UK. Blandford Books Ltd. 1981.
Marrison, C. and A. Greensmith. Birds of the World. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc. 1993.
Perrins, C. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 1985.
BirdLife International. 2018. Guaruba guarouba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22724703A132029835. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22724703A132029835.en. Downloaded on 12 December 2018.