- Common Name
- Genus Species
- Panthera onca
- The base color of their coat varies from pale yellow to reddish brown with melanistic, (black) coloration commonly exhibited. A subtle countershading is characteristic, with a deeper tone to the dorsal coat fading to a light/white ventral coat. Solid, black spots are found along the head, underbelly, and legs. Oscellated spots occur along the back and flanks. The general build is stout, compact, and powerful.
- Head & body length: 1,120 to 1,850 mm (3.67 to 6.07 ft.)
Tail length: 450 to 750 mm (1.48 to 2.46 ft.)
- 36–185 kg (79 to 408 lbs.)
Male: Generally 90 to 120 kg (200 to 270 lbs.)
Female: Generally 60 to 90 kg (130 to 200 lbs.)
- Most significantly, peccaries, capybaras, tapirs, crocodilians, and fish
- 93 to 105 days
- Nursing Duration
- Weaned at 5 to 6 months
- Sexual Maturity
- 2 to 4 years
- Life Span
- Approximately 24 years
- Southern United States to Argentina
- Forests and savannahs, with occasional intrusion into scrub and desert environments. Presence is often tied to a substantial fresh water source.
- Global: Unknown
- IUCN: Near Threatened
CITES: Appendix I
- Though territorial ranges are usually established by jaguars, these territories may shift due to seasonal conditions. Additionally, male jaguars are known to wander for hundreds of kilometers beyond their established territory.
- A population density study in southwestern Brazil indicated that (for the region) there was one jaguar per every 25 km2 (9.7 mi2). While females maintained a home range of 25 to 38 km2 (9.7 to 14.7 mi2) (with little overlap), males maintained ranges roughly twice as large (with overlap into multiple female home ranges).
- Through the end of the Pleistocene, jaguars could be found throughout the southern United States.
Ecology and Conservation
While the jaguar once populated the southern United States, Central America, and South America, its presence throughout this range has been extremely diminished. It is rare or non-existent within the United States, Mexico, most of Central America, eastern Brazil, Uruguay, and much of Argentina. The jaguars numbers have fallen primarily as a result of commercial fur hunting (with an estimated 15,000 Brazilian jaguars being killed annually throughout the 1960s), habitat loss, and culling actions attempting to diminish their threat to livestock and humans.
Nowak, Ronald M. Walker's Mammals of the World - Volume I (Sixth Edition). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.